Geothermal

Geothermal energy is the heat energy obtained from the hot water, steam, dry steam and hot dry rocks by artificial methods, which have gathered within rocks in the depths underneath the soil, and have moved and were stored by the fluid heat.

Turkey is located on an active tectonic zone as geological and geographical location, and for this reason our country is rich in terms of geothermal energy resources. Our country have approximately 1.000 geothermal springs that located all over the country that have various of temperatures.

In theory, the geothermal capacity of our country is predicted as 31.500 MWt. 78% of these geothermal fields are situated in Western Anatolia, 9 in Central Anatolia, 7% in the Marmara Region, 5% in Eastern Anatolia and 1% in the other regions. 90% of our geothermal resources are low and medium enthalphied Geothermal areas which are suitable for direct applications (heating, thermal tourism, the output of minerals, etc.), while 10% are suitable for indirect applications (generation of electricity).

Geothermal sources have widespread uses in Turkey. Today geothermal energy is used for electricity production, heating (greenhouse and residences), thermal and health tourism, industrial mineral achievement and for drying purposes. First geothermal electricity generation held in Kızıldere geothermal field by MTA in 1975 and was initiated by Kızıldere power plant in Sarayköy district of Denizli with 0,5 MWe power.

The installed capacity of geothermal energy as of year 2016 was 12,8 GWe (with refer to IGA). Top five countries in this area are the USA, Philippines, Indonesia, Mexico and New Zealand. Total direct use of geothermal energy in the World with same reference is 70.329 MWt as of year 2015. Top 5 countries in direct usage applications are China, USA, Sweden, Turkey and Iceland.

Geothermal resource explorations had been started at 1962 by MTA and brought up to date with 287,5 ° C temperature with scientific researches that conducted also by MTA.

Geothermal activities which come to a halt because of some political reasons in 1990s was accelerated in 2005. So, and drilling geothermal energy explorations reached from 2.000 metres to 28.000 metres and also geothermal budget increased about ten times for geothermal energy explorations.

In 2005, with the support of our ministry, the development of existing geothermal resources initiated and began to search for new potential areas. Due for this mobilization, our usable geothermal heat capacity increased with total 223.000 meter drillings and additional 1.900 MWt heat energy increase was provided. Also, discovered geothermal fields reached to 234 fields. As a result of total of 613 drillings with total of 383.000 meters of depth carried out to this day, 5.000 MWt of heat energy was obtained including natural outflows.

Enacted legislation as well as search investments have paved the way of investors. Thus, search, development and investment activities of geothermal projects have accelerated. With this development, the country's total geothermal heat capacity (visible amount of heat) reached to 15.500 MWt.

Comparison of Geothermal applications in Turkey for the vears 2002-2017

  • Number of fields suitable for electricity production reached from 16 in 2002 to 25 in 2017.
  • In 2002, while 500.000 m2 of greenhouses are heated from geothermal energy and now in 2017, 3.931.000 m2 greenhouses heated with geothermal energy with increment of 686%.
  • Residential heating from geothermal energy in reached from 30.000 RE in 2002 to 114.567 RE in 2017 with increasement of 281 %.
  • Electricity Production from geothermal energy reached from 15 MWe in 2002 to 860 MWe in 2017 end of June with the increasement of % 5.633.
  • Geothermal heat capacity reached from 3.000 MWt in 2002 to 15.500 MWt in 2017 with increasement of % 416.

The details presented here have been prepared with the aim of informing the users of the website of our Ministry, and do not possess the characteristics of official binding documents.

INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTS RELATED TO GEOTHERMAL
Legislation Numbered 5686 on Geothermal Resources and Natural Mineral Waters (In Turkish)