Climate Change Negotiations and Turkey
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was opened for signature at the UnitedNations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio World Summit), held on 3-14 June 1992
The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, containing the binding targets for reducing the greenhouse gases all around the world, was signed at the third session of the Conference of Parties (COP3) held in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005 after being approved by Russian Federation on 18 November 2004.
Turkey’s Position in the Climate Change Negotiation
Turkey, when convention was opened for signature in 1992, was included both in Annex 1 (historical responsibilities), as well as Annex 2 (financial responsibility) list in the original text of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Turkey attempted to get out of the Annexes of UNFCCC because it was a developing country within the period from COP1, held in 1995 to COP6, held in 2000. By making a manner change in 2000, Turkey submitted a proposal taking part in Annex 1 countries with special circumstances but not taking part in Annex 2 countries. Turkey’s request to be a party that is out of Annex II but in Annex I with special circumstances was accepted at the 7th Conference of the Parties (COP7) that took place from October 29 to November 6, in 2001 in Marrakech, Morocco. Turkey acceded to the Convention as the 189th Party on 24 May 2004. Our country is still a Party to the Convention in the Annex 1 list, of which special circumstances were recognized by the Convention Parties.
Beginning from 2005 when the Kyoto Protocol entered in force, the meetings of the Parties that accepted the Protocol within the scope of the COP meetings began to be held. Within 2007 Bali Road Map, since 2012 when post-process characterization studies already began, in order for Turkey to have a word on Protocol, "Participation Assent Draft Law" for the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC was adopted at the General Assembly of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey on 05 February 2009. Pursuant to the Article 25 of the Kyoto Protocol, Turkey became a Party to the Protocol on 26 August 2009, the ninetieth day following the entrustment of the “Certificate of Attendance". In the part concerning our country among the decisions of the 16th Conference of the Parties held in Cancun, Mexico in 2010 it is stated that Turkey is in a different position from other Annex I countries whose special circumstances have been recognized by the Conference of Parties to UNFCCC.
At the 17th Conference of Parties (COP 17), held in Durban, South Africa in 2011, it was decided that the support to be in access of our country will continue in the following fields; emission reduction, climate change adaptation, technology development and transfer, capacity building and finance. At the 18th Conference of the Parties (COP 18), held in Doha in 2012, it was decided that the second Climate Summit liability period of the Kyoto Protocol starts in 2013 and ends in 2020. Besides this, Turkey’s special circumstances were reiterated and it was decided that Annex 2 countries to give support on technology, capacity building and financial mechanisms to the countries, whose special circumstances were recognized, in order to improve low-carbon development strategies. The negotiations for Turkey to be able to receive technology, capacity building and financial support were continued at the 19th Conference of the Parties (COP 19), held in Warsaw, Poland, in 2013. At the 20th Conference of Parties (COP20), held in Peru in 2014, it was decided that Turkey could access the technology, capacity building and financial support on the way of challenging with climate change adverse effects at least up to 2020.
It was decided that all parties to the convention to submit their INDC’s (Indented Nationally DeterminedContributions) to the secretary of UN before Paris Conference in 2015. In this regard Turkey alsosubmitted its INDC in October 2015, implementation period of which is between the years 2020 and 2030, to secretary of UN.
In order for Paris Agreement to enter into force, it have to be signed by at least 55 Parties to the Convention whose total emissions cover at least 55% of total global greenhouse gas emissions. It is expected that Parties to sign Paris Agreement within the dates 22 April 2016 and 21 April 2017.
Paris Agreement was opened for signature at the Center of United Nations located on New York City in USA between the 22 April 2016 and 21 April 2017. Turkey has singed Paris Agreement on April 22th, 2016. Today, almost all parties to the UNFCCC has signed the Paris Agreement. In order for Paris Agreement to enter into force, it had to be signed by at least 55 Parties to the Convention whose total emissions cover at least 55% of total global greenhouse gas emissions. On 5 October 2016, the threshold for entry into force of the Paris Agreement was achieved. The Paris Agreement entered into force on 4 November 2016. Today 127 Parties have ratified the Paris Agreement, of 197 Parties to the Convention.
In 2016, COP22 which was organized at Marrakesh in Morocco, negotiations continued in order to solve issues that were incomplete and could not be resolved by the Paris Agreement.