- Russian-Turkey Natural Gas Pipeline (West Line)
- Blue Stream Gas Pipeline
- Eastern Anatolian Natural Gas Main Transmission Pipeline (Iran - Turkey)
- Baku – Tbilisi – Erzurum Natural Gas Pipeline
- Turkey – Greece Natural Gas Interconnection
- Trans – Anatolia Natural Gas Pipeline Project
- Turkish Stream Gas Pipeline
RUSSIA – TURKEY NATURAL GAS PIPELINE (WEST LINE)
As a result of the research on alternative energy sources, an Intergovernmental Agreement was signed between the governments of the Republic of Turkey and the former Soviet Union regarding natural gas delivery on 18 September 1984.
After the signature of the agreement, related works has been started by BOTAŞ and with the Natural Gas Usage Survey, which has been done in 1985, the potential natural gas consumption and feasible route has been determined. In this context, a 25-year Natural Gas Purchase-Sale Agreement was signed between BOTAŞ and SoyuzGazExport on 14 February 1986 in Ankara. Within the scope of the agreement; natural gas imports started gradually from 1987 and reached to the maximum amount of 6 billion m3/year in 1993.
The Russia -Turkey Natural Gas Pipeline, which enters the country from the Malkoçlar on the Bulgarian border, following the route Hamitabat, Ambarlı, Istanbul, Izmit, Bursa and Eskişehir and reaches to Ankara, is 845 km long.
The construction works are started on October 26, 1986 and the pipeline reached to its first stop, Hamitabat, on June 23, 1987. From this date, in addition to the domestic natural gas, imported natural gas started to be used in electricity production at Trakya Combined Cycle Power Plant in Hamitabat. The line reached Ankara in August 1988. Natural gas was started to be used in IGSAŞ (Istanbul Gübre Sanayii A.Ş.) in July 1988, in Ambarlı Power Plant in August 1988 and in residential and commercial areas of Ankara in October 1988.
Within the process, the capacity of the Malkoçlar Metering Station on the Bulgarian border has been increased from 8 billion m³/year to 14 billion m³/year.
BLUE STREAM GAS PIPELINE
Within the scope of the 25-year Natural Gas Purchase-Sale Agreement signed between BOTAŞ and Gazexport on December 15, 1997, natural gas is transported from the Russian Federation through a transit line under the Black Sea to Turkey. According to the agreement, 16 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year is supplied to Turkey.
Blue Stream Gas Pipeline has been constructed as three main parts;
- On the Russian territory, a Pipeline System between the Izobilnoye-Djubga with a total length of 370 km, consists of 308 km long 56" pipeline and 62 km long 48" pipeline,
- In the Black Sea pass, between Djubga and Samsun, there are 2 parallel lines of 24" diameter, each about 390 km in length,
- In the territory of Turkey, a Pipeline System of 501 km long 48” pipeline
The financing and construction of the part of the natural gas pipeline in the territory of the Russian Federation and under the Black Sea have been carried out by the GAZPROM Company and the financing and construction of the Turkish section by BOTAS. The construction of the Pressure Reducing and Metering Station in Samsun - Durusu has been completed on October 15, 2002.
The Turkish part of the Blue Stream Project starts from Samsun and reaches to Ankara via Amasya, Çorum and Kırıkkale. It is connected to the Main Line near Polatlı. The pipeline was taken into operation on February 20, 2003 and the official opening ceremony was held on November 17, 2005.
EASTERN ANATOLIAN NATURAL GAS MAIN TRANSMISSION LINE (IRAN-TURKEY)
A Natural Gas Purchase-Sale Agreement was signed between Iran and Turkey on 8 August 1996 in Tehran for the purpose of supplying 10 billion m3 per year of Iranian natural gas to Turkey via pipeline. The Eastern Anatolian Natural Gas Main Transmission Line, which is built in this scope and has a length of approximately 1491 km and a diameter of ranging between 48” and 16”, extends from Doğubayazıt to Ankara via Erzurum, Sivas and Kayseri, and to Seydisehir, Konya with a branch via Kayseri.
By the end of June 2001, the entire pipeline system was ready to receive gas and with the completion of the Meter Station in Bazargan, Iran, the gas purchase from Iran was started on 10 December 2001.
BAKU - TBILISI – ERZURUM NATURAL GAS PIPELINE (BTE)
The Baku-Tbilisi-Erzurum Natural Gas Pipeline, which aims to supply natural gas to be produced on the Shah Deniz field in the southern Caspian Sea region of Azerbaijan to Turkey, was realized under the Turkey-Azerbaijan Intergovernmental Agreement signed on 12 March 2001. In this context, BOTAŞ and SOCAR signed a 15-year Natural Gas Purchase-Sale Agreement on 12 March 2001 for the transportation of 6.6 billion m3 of Azerbaijan natural gas to Turkey annually.
AThe construction of the BTE pipeline, which is approximately 980 km long and 42" in diameter, and uses the same corridor as the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Crude Oil Pipeline (BTC) in the territories of Azerbaijan and Georgia, was started on 16 October 2004 and the gas flow through the pipeline has been started as of July 4 2007.
It is planned to increase the capacity of part of the BTE in the Azerbaijan and Georgia territory (South Caucasus Natural Gas Pipeline) in parallel with the second stage production of the Shah Deniz field and to connect the Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline (TANAP) on the border of Turkey and Georgia. The project activities are started in 2015 and it is envisaged to complete the project in a way that can supply gas to TANAP until the end of 2018.
TURKEY – GREECE NATURAL GAS INTERCONNECTION (ITG)
The first phase of the South European Gas Ring, which was developed within the context of the European Union INOGATE (Interstate Oil and Gas Transport to Europe) Program, is the pipeline that will interconnect the Turkish and Greek natural gas systems and enable to transport natural gas to Greece from and/or through Turkey. The Intergovernmental Agreement concerning realization of Turkey – Greece natural gas interconnection and supplying natural gas to Hellenic Republic from the Republic of Turkey has been signed between the Republic of Turkey and Hellenic Republic on February 23, 2003 and the Natural Gas Sale Purchase Agreement regarding natural gas export for 15 years has been signed between BOTAŞ and DEPA (Public Gas Corporation of Greece) on December 23, 2003. With the inauguration ceremony which was attended by the prime ministers of two countries, the natural gas supply has been started on November 18, 200,7.
The Project has been planned to extend to Italy from Greece and in this regard, an Intergovernmental Agreement has been signed between Turkey, Greece and Italy on 26 July 2007. Although there has been no progress on obtaining commitments for gas transportation, it is considered that opportunities may arise for the realization of the Italian connection.
TRANS – ANATOLIA NATURAL GAS PIPELINE PROJECT (TANAP)
In order to meet the rising natural gas demand of Turkey, negotiations were held with the Azerbaijan Government and Shah Deniz Consortium, which has developed Shah Deniz field of Azerbaijan, and an agreement was signed on October 25, 2011 envisaging the supply of 6 billion m3 Azeri gas annually to Turkey starting from 2018. In addition, for transportation of 10 billion m3 Azerbaijani gas to Europe through Turkey via a newly constructed pipeline, an Intergovernmental Agreement between Azerbaijan and Turkey and a Host Governmental Agreement annex to the Intergovernmental Agreement between Government of Turkey and Project Company has been signed regarding Trans Anatolian Natural Gas Pipeline, TANAP, on 26 June 2012. With these agreements, legal infrastructure has been established to ensure the realization of TANAP Project.
In order to bring the gas to be produced in Azerbaijan to Turkey and Europe through Turkey, final investment decisions of the The Shah Deniz Phase II development, the Southern Caucasus Pipeline Expansion Project (SCPX), TANAP and the Trans Adriatic Natural Gas Pipeline with total investment of 45 billion Dollars were taken at a ceremony held in Baku in December 2013. Turkey has a share of 19% in Shah Deniz Phase II and South Caucasus Pipeline Expansion Project through TPAO and 30% in TANAP Project through BOTAŞ. Thus, Turkey plays an active role in all of the processes from the production of natural gas to the supply to the end user at uninterrupted and appropriate conditions.
With the TANAP Project, the construction of a pipeline with a capacity of 32 billion m3 per year and a length of 1,850 km to reach the Greece border from Georgia border is planned. The activities related to the project are carried out by TANAP Doğal Gaz İletim A.Ş. BOTAS has 30 percent share, SOCAR has 58 percent share and BP has 12 percent share in TANAP Doğal Gaz iletim A.Ş.
The groundbreaking ceremony of the project was held in Kars on 17 March 2015 and hosted by President of the Republic of Turkey with the participation of many countries, especially United States of America and European Union, at prime ministerial and ministerial level. Within the scope of the project, the first gas flow to Turkey via the pipeline is planned to be achieved in 2018. As for Europe, it is projected that gas supply will start at the year 2020.
TURKSTREAM GAS PIPELINE PROJECT
In order to provide political support for the TurkStream Gas Pipeline Project and to determine the technical, economic and legal framework, The Intergovernmental Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Turkey and the Government of the Russian Federation on the TurkStream Gas Pipeline was signed in Istanbul on October 10, 2016 in the presence of the President of the Republic of Turkey and President of the Russian Federation. Internal legal procedures required for entry into force of the Agreement are completed in both countries.
TurkStreeam Gas Pipeline Project is a new pipeline system running from Russian Federation through Black Sea to receiving terminal on the Black Sea coast of the Republic of Turkey and further across the territory of the Republic of Turkey up to the borders with its neighbouring states with two parallel pipelines with each having an annual capacity of 15.75 billion m3.
The project is a pipeline system consisting of the offshore section and the onshore section, which will be constructed to supply the natural gas to the Republic of Turkey from the Russian Federation as well as to supply the Russian gas to Europe through the territory of Republic of Turkey. The construction and operation of the two pipelines in the offshore section will be carried out by the Russian Federation. One of the lines in the onshore section will solely supply natural gas to the Republic of Turkey and will be constructed by BOTAS as part of national transmission system. The second pipeline on the onshore section will supply gas to Europe and a new company, which will be established by the companies of the two countries with a partnership of 50% share, will carry out the construction and operation of the second pipeline.
The first line with an annual capacity of 15,75 bcm that will deliver gas to Turkey is planned to be constructed in the first phase of the project. The construction of the second line depends on the gas purchase commitments of the EU member states.
The natural gas disputes between the Russian Federation and Ukraine over the past years have caused the supply of gas from the West Line to Turkey to be cut off from time to time and this situation jeopardizes the security of the supply of Turkey, especially in the winter months. Within the scope of TurkStream, upon the commissioning of pipeline to be constructed solely to supply gas to Turkey, 14 billion cubic meters of gas purchased from West Line will be delivered to Turkey via TurkStream without any change of terms and conditions of existing contracts. Thus, it will be ensured that the gas transported directly from Russian Federation to Turkey without the use of the transmission system of another country will not be exposed to possible interruptions from third parties.
According to the project schedule, engineering works are currently being carried out in the exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of Turkey and it is planned to start construction in the second half of 2017 and to take the pipeline into operation at the end of 2019.