Petroleum is a very complex component, comprised primarily of hydrogen and carbon, as well as small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Under normal conditions it can be found in gaseous, liquid and solid form. In order to be able to differentiate petroleum which is in the form of gas from gases which have been manufactured, it is generally known as natural gas. As the principal components of crude oil and natural gas are hydrogen and carbon, these are also known as “hydrocarbons”.

The total proved oil reserves of the world were 1.700 billion barrels in 2015. World proved oil reserves have decreased to a very low rate compared to 2014. The largest addition to reserves came from Saudi Arabia adding 1.1 billion barrels. The largest decline came from Russia, where reserves fell by 1.9 billion barrels. In 2015, world oil reserves will be suffıcient for 51 years, which was 52.2 years in previous years.Crude oil, which has a strategic position among primary sources of energy, has met 32.6% of the world energy demand as of 2014.

109.7 billion tonnes (47.7%) of the petroleum reserves are in Middle Eastern countries, 19.3 billion tonnes (8.3%) are in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), and 17.1 billion tonnes (7.6%) are in Africa. While the production of petroleum throughout the world reached 93.2 million barrels/day in 2014, it is expected that the biggest petroleum importers in the world will be China and Europe in 2030. America, which is currently the largest petroleum importer in the world, is expected to be replaced in this position by China in 2017, and the petroleum imports of China, which are supported by the economic growth of the country, are expected to make it less dependent on petroleum than Europe.

Approximately 72% of the world's producible petroleum and natural gas reserves are sıtuated in geographical regions which are close to our country. With its geo-politic position, Turkey neighbours countries possessing three quarters of the world's petroleum and natural gas reserves and it is participating in numerous very important projects as a natural “Energy Corridor” between the energy rich Caspian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern countries and the consumer markets in Europe, and providing support to the said projects. It is expected that a significant portion of the demand for primary energy, which is expected to rise by 40% by the year 2030, will be met from the sources located in the region we are located in.

The oldest pipeline in Turkey is the lraq - Turkey Crude Oil Pipeline which carries the petroleum from Kirkuk in Northern lraq to the West. The quantity of crude oil transported by the pipeline reached 305 million barrels in 1999, but fell to 10.9 billion barrels in 2006 due to the sabotages which took place and the difficulties experienced in Kirkuk. In 2015, 192.4 million barrels of crude oil was transported through this pipeline. Another pipeline which transports petroleum is the Baku - Tbilisi - Ceyhan (BTC) Crude Oil Pipeline, which went into operation on 28 May 2006. On 22 June 2008, the daily transport capacity of the pipeline reached 1 million barrels, and, as a result of the endeavours to ensure that more petroleum is transported through the pipeline, in 2009 this quantity rose to 1,2 million barrels a day.


In 2016 a total 2,6 million tons of petroleum was produced, and until today a total 150 million tons of petroleum has been produced.

The domestic producible petroleum reserves in 2016 were 316,6 million barrels (46,2 million tonnes) and unless there are any new discoveries, the lifespan of the total domestic crude oil reserves is 18 years, based on today’s production levels. In 2016, 7% of the dermand for crude oil was met through domestic production, while in natural gas this figure was 0.8%.

In 2016, 2884 km 2D and 6629 km2 3D seismic data were collected in our country. In 2016, a total of 44 wells were opened and 72.630 meters of drilling was carried out. From the year that the petroleum exploration began in our country to the end of 2016, a total of 4734 wells were opened and 223 fields including 79 natural gas fields and 144 crude oil fields were discovered.

Within the scope of activities directed at meeting the ever increasing demand for petroleum and natural gas from domestic sources, the studies being carried out in the basins of our country, which have not been sufficiently explored, and in particular on the sea in the Black Sea and Mediterranean areas, have gained great momentum. Due to the possibilities of drilling in areas where water is very deep (1.000 - 2.000 m) as a result of the advances in drilling technology in recent years, and the appearance of production possibilities, the structure of hydrocarbons exploration in our seas has been established at pace. Especially, in the last years important steps were taken in the direction of determining the hydrocarbons potential of Mediterranean and Black Sea.

In recent years, along with the rising of the importance of shale gas in the world, the importance has been given to searching of shale gas in Turkey. For this purpose, Sarıbuğday-1 in 2012, Konacık-1 in 2013, Akçay-1 in 2014 and Çeşmekolu-1 and Çakıcı-1 wells in Trakya Region in 2015 and 2016 respectively were opened in Southeastern Anatolia Region. Studies are underway to evaluate the data obtained from the wells. Apart from the South-Eastern Anatolian region, it is also believed that there are significant amounts of available shale gas in the Hamitabat and Mezardere areas of the Thracian region, which have yet to be taken into the scope of the operating agreement, but which may be put on the agenda in the coming period.

The details presented here have been prepared with the aim of informing the users of the website of our Ministry, and do not possess the characteristics of official binding documents.


The Petrol Market Legislation