Geothermal Energy Potential Of Turkey And Research Studies

Geothermal energy is clean, cheap and environmentally friendly, which is our domestic energy source. Turkey is located on an active tectonic zone as geological and geographical location and for this reason our country is rich in terms of geothermal energy resources. Our country have approximately 1.000 geothermal springs that located all over the country that have various of temperatures.

The geothermal capacity of our country is very high. 78% of these geothermal fields are situated in Western Anatolia, 9% in Central Anatolia, 7% in the Marmara Region, 5% in Eastern Anatolia and 1% in the other regions. 90% of our geothermal resources are low and medium enthalpy geothermal areas which are suitable for direct applications (heating, thermal tourism, industrial usage, etc.), while 10% are suitable for indirect applications (generation of electricity). First geothermal electricity generation held in 1975 was initiated by Kızıldere power plant with 0.5 MWe power.

The installed capacity of geothermal energy as of year 2018 was 14.369 GWe. Top five countries in this area are the USA, Philippines, Indonesia, Turkey and New Zealand. Total direct use of geothermal energy in the world with same reference is higher than 70.000 MWt as of year 2018. Top 5 countries in direct usage applications are USA, China, Sweden, Belarus and Norway.

In order to develop existing resources and to search for new resources/fields, drillings reached from 2.000 meters to 28.000 meters. Since 2005, with the support of our Ministry, the development of existing geothermal resources initiated and began to search for new potential areas. As the end of 2004, the available heat capacity of 3.100 MWt increased to 5.000 MWt by an additional 1.900 MWt heat energy. 173 discovered geothermal fields reached to 239 fields which 10 of them are suitable for electricity production. So far, total of 632 drillings with total of 410.000 meters of depth and approximately 5.000 MWt of heat energy (including natural springs) obtained from these wells.

In 2008, in conjunction with the Geothermal Resources and Natural Mineralized Waters Law, private sector began to introduce development and investment of geothermal projects also. In conjunction with this development, the country's total geothermal heat capacity (visible amount of heat) reached to 35.500 MWt.

The details presented here have been prepared with the aim of informing the users of the website of our Ministry, and do not possess the characteristics of official binding documents.

Legislation Numbered 5686 on Geothermal Resources and Natural Mineral Waters (In Turkish)