Petroleum is a very complex component, comprised primarily of hydrogen and carbon, as well as small amounts of nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Under normal conditions it can be found in gaseous, liquid and solid form. In order to be able to differentiate petroleum which is in the form of gas from gases which have been manufactured, it is generally known as natural gas. As the principal components of crude oil and natural gas are hydrogen and carbon, these are also known as “hydrocarbons”.

The total proved oil reserves of the world were 1,696.6 billion barrels in 2017. Crude oil, which has a strategic position among primary sources of energy, has met 33.7 % of the world energy demand as of 2017. 807.7 billion barrels (47.6%) of the petroleum reserves are in Middle Eastern countries, 330.1 billion barrels (19.5%) are in South & Middle American countries, and 226.1 billion barrels (13.3%) are in North America. While the production of petroleum throughout the world reached 97.4 million barrels/day in 2017.

Approximately 70% of the world's producible petroleum and natural gas reserves are sıtuated in geographical regions which are close to our country. With its geo-politic position, Turkey neighbours countries possessing three quarters of the world's petroleum and natural gas reserves and it is participating in numerous very important projects as a natural “Energy Center” between the energy rich Caspian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern countries and the consumer markets in Europe, and providing support to the said projects. It is expected that a significant portion of the demand for primary energy, which is expected to rise by 40% by the year 2030, will be met from the sources located in the region we are located in.

In 2017 a total 25.8 million tons of crude oil imported, and 16.8 million tons of petroleum products have been imported. In contrast, 10.1 million tons of petroleum products were exported.
Within the scope of activities directed at meeting the ever increasing demand for petroleum and natural gas from domestic sources, the studies being carried out in the basins of our country, which have not been sufficiently explored, and in particular on the sea in the Black Sea and Mediterranean areas, have gained great momentum. Due to the possibilities of drilling in areas where water is very deep (1,000 – 2,000 m) as a result of the advances in drilling technology in recent years, and the appearance of production possibilities, the structure of hydrocarbons exploration in our seas has been established at pace. Especially, in the last years important steps were taken in the direction of determining the hydrocarbons potential of Mediterranean and Black Sea.

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